3 - 30 Years
GFDL’s CM2.5, CM3
CM2.5 model is a global climate model, composed of GFDL’s Atmospheric Model 3 (AM3) that incorporates higher spatial resolution and a significantly improved land model (LM3) than previous versions. The atmospheric component of CM2.5 has similar physics to CM2.1, but uses 50 km horizontal resolution and 32 vertical levels. The ocean component (MOM) has horizontal resolution of approximately 0.25°, with grid sizes ranging from 28 km at the equator to 8 km in polar regions.
The GFDL Forecast-oriented Low Ocean Resolution version of CM2.5 (CM2.5-FLOR, or FLOR) model is a descendent of the CM2.5 model and CM2.1 model. The FLOR model incorporates the higher horizontal resolution in the atmosphere and land, higher vertical resolution in the atmosphere, and significantly improved land model from CM2.5. The FLOR model also uses the relatively low resolution ocean and sea ice components of CM2.1.
In CM3, GFDL model improvements focused primarily on the atmospheric component (AM3). Specifically there are new techniques deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry and aerosols driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport.
Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5
NASA’s Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of climate models integrated using the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5 DAS) integrates the GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (GEOS-5 AGCM) with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) atmospheric analysis developed jointly with NOAA/NCEP/EMC. The model uses NASA’s LIS Land Information System (LIS), the Modular Ocean Model (MOM), and LANL’s CICE model. The model supports NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. Various versions of the model are run at 1.5x1° resolution in support of NMME, and 3x4° or 4x5° in support of IPCC reports.
Community Climate System Model
The NCAR-created climate model is sponsored by NSF, DOE, and NASA and includes the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM4), the Community Land Model, the Parallel Ocean Model (POP 2), and cryosphere (CICE) climate modelling; CCSM is ESMF-compliant. All the constituent models can be run separately or as part of the coupled whole CCM. The model has been used to run many IPCC-generated climate scenarios for greenhouse gas increase and NMME at resolutions of order 1°.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) program was authorized by Congress in 2006 with an interagency mandate to coordinate and integrate drought research, building upon existing federal, tribal, state, and local partnerships in support of creating a national drought early warning information system.